The basic thing you should know about foundation is that it carries the entire load of the structure. If you’re wondering how a skyscraper building is able to stand tall, it’s because of the strong foundation. Upon construction, the engineers have to design the foundation in such a way that the entire structure will be able to withstand strong winds and other natural disasters.
The contractors of Richardson foundation repair said that there’s more to the digging and pouring concrete that you should know about. Even if you won’t give a manual labor in the construction, you should know the basics about foundation. In this article, you will learn its types.
1. Shallow Foundation
The basic information you should know about a shallow foundation is that the depth of the ground is less than the width of the foundation. They are commonly called as the spread footing. The classifications of this foundation are as follows.
1.1 Wall Footing
A wall footing foundation transfers the weight of the wall into the ground. It runs continuous along the wall’s directions. The width of this foundation is two times the wall’s width at ground level. This type of foundation is suitable if the weight is small and economical in gravels and dense sands.
1.2 Column Footing
If the depth of the foundation is greater than 1.5 meters, the column footing is the most suitable. It is constructed through reinforced or plain concrete and is in the form of flat slab. The column’s base is also enlarged.
1.3 Combined Footing
Engineers use combined footings for foundations that are two columns in a row, it means if the foundation they’re going to construct will extend beyond the property line. It’s trapezoidal or rectangular in shape.
1.4 Strap Footing
This type of foundation is used when the edge footing cannot extend beyond the property. So a strap beam is used to link up the edge footing with the interior footing.
2. Deep Foundation
The deep foundation has a depth that’s greater than the width. When the shallow foundation can’t support the weight of a structure, the deep foundation is used. The process is that this type of foundation transmits the superstructure’s load to the rock strata which lies deep in the ground.
2.1 Pile Foundation
The pile foundation is use to transfer the load of the structure to the rock, which is a less compressible stratum. Friction or bearing is used when transferring the load. When the inclined and horizontal forces need to be carried from the retaining walls and bridge abutments, this type of foundation is also used. It can be classified as friction piles, bearing piles and a combination of the two. The materials can be steel piles, concrete piles and timber piles.
2.2 Pier Foundation
This type of foundation is an underground structure which is cylindrical in shape. It supports the structure’s heavy load in which the shallow foundations can’t. The load transference is possible through bearing. This foundation is used when the soil is stiff clay and the top strata are a decomposed rock.